What Exactly Is CNC Machining? A Summary of the CNC Machining Process

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CNC machining is a manufacturing method in which pre-programmed computer software controls the movement of industrial tools and machines. The method may be used to manage a wide range of complicated machinery, including grinders and lathes, mills, and CNC routers. Three-dimensional cutting jobs may be completed with CNC machining in a single set of instructions.

The CNC method operates in opposition to — and thereby overcomes — the constraints of manual control, in which live operators are required to prompt and lead milling tool orders via levers, buttons, and wheels. A CNC system may appear to the untrained eye to be a standard set of computer components, but the software programmes and consoles used in CNC machining separate it from all other kinds of computation.

If you’re interested in using CNC manufacturing to create a variety of items, learn more about CNC machining and CNC programming. You may also be interested in learning about the various types of CNC machines and the sorts of work they can perform in order to determine if they may satisfy your requirements.

What Is the Process of CNC Machining?

When a CNC system is enabled, the intended cuts are programmed into the software and directed to associated equipment and machines, which carry out the prescribed dimensional jobs, much like a robot.

In CNC programming, the code generator inside the numerical system frequently assumes mechanisms are faultless, despite the likelihood of mistakes, which is increased when a CNC machine is ordered to cut in more than one direction at the same time. A sequence of inputs known as the part programme outline the positioning of a tool in a numerical control system.

Programs are entered into a numerical control machine using punch cards. CNC machine programming, on the other hand, is loaded into computers through tiny keyboards. CNC programming is stored in the memory of a computer. Programmers write and edit the code itself. As a result, CNC systems have significantly greater processing capability. Best of all, CNC systems are far from static, as novel prompts may be added to current programmes via rewritten code.

CNC Machine Programming

Machines in CNC production are controlled numerically, with a software programme specified to control an object. The language used in CNC machining is known as G-code, and it is used to manage the many characteristics of a corresponding machine, such as speed, feed rate, and synchronisation.

CNC machining, in essence, allows you to pre-program the speed and location of machine tool operations and execute them in regular, predictable cycles via software, all with minimum input from human operators. A 2D or 3D CAD drawing is created during the CNC machining process, which is subsequently converted into computer code for the CNC system to execute. After entering the software, the operator runs it to check there are no errors in the code.

Because of these characteristics, the method has been embraced throughout the industrial sector, with CNC manufacturing being especially important in the fields of metal and plastic manufacture. Learn more about the many types of machining systems and how CNC machine programming completely automates CNC manufacturing in the sections below:

Machining Systems with Open/Closed Loops

Position control is decided throughout the CNC manufacturing process using an open-loop or closed-loop method. Signalling between the CNC controller and motor runs in a single direction with the former. A closed-loop system allows the controller to receive feedback, allowing for mistake correction. As a result, a closed-loop system can correct for changes in velocity and position.

Movement in CNC machining is typically directed across the X and Y axes. The tool is then positioned and guided by stepper or servo motors that reproduce the exact movements dictated by the G-code. The procedure can be conducted using open-loop control if the force and speed are low. Closed-loop control is essential for everything else to provide the speed, consistency, and accuracy required for industrial applications such as metalwork.

CNC Machining is completely automated.

The manufacture of parts using pre-programmed software is mostly automated in today’s CNC protocols. Computer-aided design (CAD) software is used to define the dimensions for a specific item, which is subsequently turned into an actual final product using computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software.

A range of machine tools, including drills and cutters, may be required for any given workpiece. To meet these demands, many modern devices integrate many operations into a single cell.

Alternatively, an installation might consist of many machines and a set of robotic hands that transport parts from one application to another, all controlled by the same programme. Regardless of the configuration, the CNC process ensures uniformity in component manufacturing that would be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve manually.

The Various Types of CNC Machines

The first numerical control machines were created in the 1940s, when motors were used to control the movement of pre-existing tools. As technology evolved, the mechanisms were improved with analogue computers and, eventually, digital computers, resulting in the advent of CNC machining.

The great majority of CNC arsenals nowadays are entirely electronic. Ultrasonic welding, hole punching, and laser cutting are some of the most popular CNC-operated procedures. The following are the most often utilised machines in CNC systems:

CNC Milling Machines

CNC mills can execute programmes made up of number and letter prompts that guide components over different lengths. A mill machine’s programming might be based on G-code or a proprietary language established by a manufacturing team. Basic mills have three axes (X, Y, and Z), while most contemporary mills can accept three more axes.


Indexable tools are used to cut components in a circular direction on lathe machines. Lathe cuts are made with precision and speed thanks to CNC technology. CNC lathes are used to create sophisticated designs that would be impossible to create on manually operated versions of the equipment. The control functions of CNC-run mills and lathes are similar in general. Lathes, like CNC mills, can be controlled by G-code or a unique proprietary code. Most CNC lathes, on the other hand, have two axes — X and Z.

Plasma Cutting Machines

A plasma torch slices the material in a plasma cutter. The method is most commonly used on metal objects, however it may also be used on other surfaces. Plasma is created by combining compressed-air gas with electrical arcs to achieve the speed and heat required to cut metal.

Machines for Electric Discharge

Electric-discharge machining (EDM), also known as die sinking and spark machining, is a method that uses electrical sparks to form workpieces into certain shapes. EDM uses current discharges between two electrodes to remove parts of a workpiece.

The electric field grows more powerful and consequently stronger than the dielectric as the space between the electrodes shrinks. This enables a current to flow between the two electrodes. As a result, each electrode removes a section of a workpiece. EDM subtypes include:

  • Wire EDM: Wire EDM is a method of removing parts of an electrically conductive material that involves spark erosion.
  • Sinker EDM: Sinker EDM uses an electrode and a workpiece saturated in dielectric fluid to produce a piece.

The detritus from each finished workpiece is taken away by a liquid dielectric, which appears once the current between the two electrodes has ceased and is supposed to remove any additional electric charges, in a process called as flushing.

Water Jet Cutting Machines

Water jets are CNC machining tools that use high-pressure water jets to cut hard materials such as granite and metal. In certain circumstances, the water is combined with sand or another abrasive material. This procedure is frequently used by businesses to shape industrial machine components.

Water jets are used as a cooler option for materials that cannot withstand the heat-intensive procedures used by other CNC machines. Because of its colder nature, water jets are used in numerous industries, including aerospace and mining, where they are used for carving and cutting, among other things. Water jet cutters are also used in applications requiring highly delicate material cuts since the lack of heat avoids any change in the material’s fundamental qualities that may arise from metal on metal cutting.

For more information about CNC Manufacturing Services Malaysia, please visit  https://www.innopeak.com/

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